There's no doubt that 5G will be a global phenomenon, and Japan, China, South Korea, the United States and Europe are all involved in various research efforts. International collaboration is strongly promoted by all regions, but there is also a competitive element that will see different countries and regions strive to secure some sort of leadership with 5G.
In Europe, 5G momentum has accelerated this year, and the stakes are high. Operators, equipment manufacturers, regulators and standards bodies are all now working in various collaborative ways to turn what is currently a long list of requirements into a standard for 5G.
The EU's Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), which included funding for the flagship METIS project that was established to lay the foundations for the concept of 5G, ended in 2013 and the EU has now moved onto a new framework under FP8, better known as Horizon 2020.
For more on what European operators and vendors are doing to stay on top of 5G development, check out this FierceWireless:Europe special report.